About the Canadian Hydrographic Service
Learn about the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS), including who we are, how and why we work, our history and what regulations we follow.
Who we are
Who we are
Since 1883, CHS has studied Canadian waters to ensure their safe, sustainable and navigable use.
Canada has the longest coastline of any country in the world, with more than a third of our territory under water. Our lakes, rivers and oceans are used by millions of craft every year for:
- national defence
- fishing and industry
- international shipping
- recreation and tourism
We've used technological advancements and our more than a century of expertise to become a recognized world leader in hydrography.
CHS is a division of the Science Branch of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO). We have 300 employees across Canada. We publish and maintain nearly a thousand nautical charts and hundreds of publications.
With access to Canadian Coast Guard ships, CHS takes advantage of every opportunity to take hydrographic and oceanographic measurements. We conduct regular field surveys, especially for higher risk, higher priority areas. We use both shore parties and marine vessels, including specialized hydrographic craft.
The 4 areas of our business
CHS is involved in a range of activities that continue to deepen our knowledge of Canadian waters. These activities include:
- we play a vital role in determining Canada's maritime boundaries and sovereignty
- coastal natural hazards
- we monitor tides and water levels
- this is essential information for detecting and predicting climate change and variability, and natural hazards
- maritime transportation
- our nautical charts and navigational products help ensure the safe navigation of Canada's waterways
- ocean and freshwater mapping
- we use the latest technology to collect high-resolution data on the depth, shape and structure of Canada's oceans, lakes and rivers
What we do
What we do
CHS is a world leader in hydrography. This is the science of measuring and describing the features and depths of seas and coastal areas for the primary purpose of navigation.
Hydrographers take surveys and produce essential charts and related publications.
Surveying is collecting and collating soundings (measuring water depths) and other key data. CHS hydrographers are actively engaged in surveying and measuring:
- the Great Lakes
- the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic Ocean coasts
- Canada's inland navigable waterways to the edge of the continental shelf and beyond
We follow rigorous, internationally recognized standards and guidelines when we conduct hydrographic surveys. Our surveys capture:
- water depths
- hazards to navigation
- geographical features
- sea bottom characteristics
- tides, currents and water levels
- human-made and natural features that aid navigation
The data collected by hydrographers is used to produce authoritative nautical charts and publications which support a broad range of marine activities.
Nautical chart publication and updates
CHS publishes and maintains nearly a thousand nautical charts. These charts are the most authoritative and complete available, and are renowned the world over for their quality. We update our charts promptly every time we notice:
- a buoy has moved
- a wharf has been built
- an undersea cable has been laid
These corrections were once made exclusively by hand. However, now we use on-demand printing technology to add changes via computer and generate fresh copies with all the latest updates included.
Chart publication and distribution
CHS distributes a total of nearly 300,000 nautical charts, tide tables and other nautical publications every year, including:
- Canadian Hydrographic Service digital charts with:
- technical support
- easy access to updates
- paper charts, covering:
- major inland waterways
- all three of the country's coastlines
- continually updated online water level bulletins for:
- the Great Lakes
- tide current atlases, which provide hourly tidal current:
- chart catalogues, which describe all available CHS charts
- sailing directions, which offer detailed descriptions of the best approaches to:
- local history
- harbour facilities
- Canadian tide and current tables, which provide the predicted tides in Canadian waters for 1 year
In 2007, CHS began distributing electronic navigational charts (ENC) in S-57 format as well as raster navigational charts (RNC) in BSB format as Canadian Hydrographic Service digital charts.
We have also switched to a print-on-demand technology for our paper charts. We no longer print in bulk and store charts in warehouses. Instead, mariners receive the latest chart with the most recent updates, with no more hand-drawn corrections or glued-on patches. This also allows us to get charts out six to eight weeks faster.
CHS licenses access to our intellectual property to more than 1,000 private and public sector clients. We're a partner in the development of ocean technology and applications. Our intellectual property includes a host of information on waterways and their environs. It's used to design new marine infrastructures, such as plot shipping routes.
Water column data
CHS has expanded the view of Canada's waterways to include all of what's known as the 'water column.' This is all of the water between the surface and the floor.
A whole range of important factors are measured and tracked, such as climate and temperature. Plankton densities are also monitored, as this is important both to ocean food chains and the seas' ability to process carbon.
We collect, record and share data from ocean areas next to Canada. This data includes:
- wave data
- tide and water levels
- contaminants affecting marine life and their habitats
Argo international project
CHS is also involved in managing the data collected through Canada's participation in the Argo program. This international project measures ocean conditions all over the globe and shares the information in real-time via satellite technology.
Over 20 countries participate in the project. They all cooperate to deploy, monitor and maintain a fleet of around 3,000 sophisticated profiling floats, such as buoys, which:
- drift around the world's oceans
- sink to pre-programmed depths of 2,000 metres for specific lengths of time
- rise to the surface, taking a variety of important measurements as they ascend
Today, Argo data is used for:
- fishery planning
- weather forecasting
- a whole range of other applications
You can view:
How We Work
How We Work
CHS has channelled its in-depth knowledge and extensive expertise into the development of new technologies and scientific procedures. Today we offer everything from 3D views of Canada's seabeds to real-time updates on water levels in the St. Lawrence River.
How we develop our nautical charts
Hydrographers use echo-sounders to calculate the distance to the sea bottom. These tools measure depths by bouncing sound waves off the seabed and measuring the length of time it takes for the echo to return.
Surveys done this way follow pre-planned lines along which the surveying vessel steers. How closely the lines are spaced depends on the complexity of the seabed. In hazardous waters, complete coverage of the bottom is required.
Hydrographers must know exactly where the vessel is when each sounding is made in order to indicate depths at the correct locations on charts. To do this, they use tools such as:
- electronic charts
- multibeam acoustics
A significant advance in determining a ship's position is the Global Positioning System (GPS). This allows us to achieve an accuracy of plus or minus 20 metres 95% of the time. The differential GPS (DPS) has since allowed us to achieve an even greater accuracy of plus or minus 3 metres.
Along with water depths, our hydrographers also measure tides and other changes in water level. CHS has installed permanent water level gauges along Canada's coasts and larger inland waterways to monitor tidal- and water level data. CHS has 2 gauges on the West Coast that are part of an international warning system for tsunamis.
CHS hydrographers also obtain the positions of all:
- other fixed or floating navigational aids
- landmarks (natural or human-made) used by mariners as reference points
When the survey work is completed, our multidisciplinary hydrographers:
- combine the measurements with shoreline and other topographical data
- change the measurements to the required scale for a navigational chart
The information most critical to safe navigation is selected from all of the data gathered. It's enhanced and CHS charts are created in both digital and paper formats.
Navigation in the digital era
With the addition of electronic navigational charts (ENCs) and raster navigational charts (RNCs) to its library, we have tripled the size of our traditional product line. Canadian Hydrographic Service digital charts run on onboard computers and allow for onscreen navigation. Canada's a pioneer in this area and we have one of the largest ENC portfolios in the world.
Electronic charts have the potential to provide more information than their paper cousins. At the click of a computer mouse they can:
- show the shape and the depth of a lake or sea floor
- reveal multi-dimensional and alternate points of view of waterways
- capture relatively small-scale attributes of a specific wharf, such as:
The magnitude and demands of today's ships have made accurate and timely hydrographic information more vital than ever. The ENC is part of a powerful system that allows mariners to:
- be warned of dangerous situations
- know their ship's position instantly and accurately
Multibeam systems used to see into oceans
Canada is a world-renowned leader in multibeam systems modelling technologies. Oceans modelling and remote sensing provide multi-dimensional, real-time information about waterway:
- sea floor
- coastal and bank conditions
Multibeam imagery allows fishers to view the seabed and target specific species. This is important for environmental reasons. For example, scallop fishers can reduce the area of seabed they disturb with their rakes since they know which are most likely to contain scallops.
Multibeam systems can produce an aerial photograph-like image of the seabed. This has led to a demand for multibeam mapping to support other uses, like mapping:
- fishing grounds
- pipeline and cable routes
- proposed marine protected areas (MPAs)
Why hydrography matters
Why hydrography matters
The motto of CHS sums up why hydrography matters: 'Nautical charts protect lives, property and the marine environment.'
Our charts are the roadmaps that guide mariners safely from port to port. They provide an incredible wealth of detail, including:
Keeping up with changing waterscapes
An important challenge for CHS is keeping up with changes to Canada's waterscape. High priorities for resurveying include high-traffic areas, such as:
- the Great Lakes shipping lanes
- popular recreational areas, like Trent-Severn Waterway
Also on the priority list are artificial islands located in the western Arctic that are no longer used for oil and gas development. These islands change shape due to ice scouring and currents, and present navigational hazards.
People sometimes assume we know all there is to know about our waterways. I like to remind them that we have more accurate maps of the moon than we do of our own ocean floors.
But that's changing. And that's what makes this work so exciting. You can spend 28 days on a ship with your eyes on a computer monitor and one day: there it is, something new. A good example is when we discover uncharted ship wrecks or find new areas of glass sponge reef off the BC coast.
It's amazing what today's technology enables. An electronic navigational chart on a ship's bridge, for instance, can be integrated with other systems and indicate approaching dangers and hazards to the vessel. All of a sudden, we have so much knowledge at our disposal, and all of it can help improve navigational safety.
Who we serve
Who we serve
CHS answers the needs of domestic and international mariners by producing accurate, trusted and authoritative information.
Over 22,000 commercial vessels use Canadian waters. Commercial shippers rely on our charts and publications to ensure the safe and smooth navigation of their goods. The Canada Shipping Act requires that all vessels in Canadian waters carry up-to-date CHS charts and related publications.
There are over two million small boats and personal watercraft registered in Canada. This means that about one in six households owns at least one boat, such as a:
- sailing boat
- fishing boat
- inboard motor
- outboard motor
Recreational boaters rely on our charts to:
- navigate safely
- avoid the possibility of:
- grounding or damaging their boats
- injuring themselves or their passengers
Commercial and recreational fishers rely on our charts and publications, not only for safe navigation, but also as tools to help locate fish.
CHS's classifications of the sea floor and contours, for example, can help fishers locate fish populations and track migrations. Special nautical charts have also been developed exclusively for recreational fishers and boaters.
Through various agreements, CHS provides hydrographic services to:
- Canada's Department of National Defence (DND)
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries
In addition to navigational information, CHS provides special surveys and charts for defence purposes, such as:
- submarine navigation
- anti-submarine warfare
- mine countermeasure warfare
Oil, gas and mineral exploration
CHS provides information important to the exploration for oil, gas and minerals. These activities require our precise measurements and accurate forecasts of:
- bottom types
- bottom contours
- sea and lake levels
Information collected by the Permanent Water Level Gauging network of CHS is essential in measuring sea level rise, an important aspect of climate change.
Marine environmental protection
We provide detailed knowledge of the surface water movements to groups responsible for environmental protection. In the event of a marine oil spill or similar disaster, this information helps these groups respond effectively.
CHS's promotion of safe navigation also provides further protection for our marine beds and sea life.
Search and rescue
The Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) and other organizations involved in search and rescue operations rely on CHS's updated:
- sailing directions
- tide and current tables
Active around the world
Since 1951, Canada has been an active member of the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). We work with countries around the world to develop international charting standards and new technologies for surveying and mapping the sea floor.
Marine transportation is a global activity and consistency among products and services is essential. Uniform standards allow for integration of hydrographic information across scientific and international boundaries. This contributes to better overall understanding of the coastal and offshore environment.
CHS's close association with IHO ensures that Canadian navigational products and hydrographic data adhere well to international standards.
The process that led to the creation of the CHS was set in motion after a tragedy in 1883. The steamship Asia went down in Georgian Bay in Ontario, and 150 people lost their lives. Almost immediately afterwards, calls went out for a hydrographic survey of the Great Lakes to make navigation safer.
The Georgian Bay Survey
On August 13, 1883, the Georgian Bay Survey was established, 6 years after the Georgian Bay steamship tragedy.
Their primary focus in 1883 was to survey and chart the navigable waters of Georgian Bay and Lake Huron. This was eventually extended to include all of Canada's inland waterways and coastal regions.
Hydrographic charting was extended to the Pacific Coast as early as 1891 and in the waters of the St. Lawrence River below Quebec by 1905.
The tidal and current metering program began in 1893 and the precise water level gauging of the Great Lakes in 1912.
Name change and expansion
In 1904, the Georgian Bay Survey became the Hydrographic Survey of Canada. Soon after it was unofficially called the Canadian Hydrographic Service, but this name was not officially adopted until 1928.
When Newfoundland and Labrador joined the Confederation in 1949, CHS took on the responsibility of charting their coastlines.
When the distant early warning (DEW line) system was built across Canada, many stations were in the Canadian Arctic. This led to a demand for Arctic surveys, which reached a peak in 1954 to 1957.
Modernizing techniques and technologies
In the past, the main tool for determining a vessel's position was a hand-held instrument called a sextant which was used to measure angles. Early hydrographers positioned their survey vessels by shore markings while close to the land and by quadrant or sextant when surveying offshore.
Traditional approaches to hydrography included:
- lead lines, which:
- were a long and laborious process
- used weighted lines lowered into the water to measure depth
- triangulation, which uses mathematics based on the points of a triangle to establish coordinates and the distances between points
Today's hydrographer uses:
- multibeam echo sounders, which:
- survey the entire sea floor
- uses highly advanced SONAR technology to provide high-resolution digital views of the ocean environment
- a precise differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to position the survey vessel
While paper charts are still in use, the increasing trend for modern shipping is moving away from them. Most now use electronic navigational charts (ENCs) that form part of Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS).
Our legal regime
Our legal regime
Canadian legal regime regarding hydrographic charts
Hydrographic charts are subject to international conventions and have been considered when creating Canadian legislation and policy.
Canada is signatory of many treaties, which include the:
- Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, which requires:
- contracting states to arrange for hydrographic services adequate for the needs of safe navigation
- all ships to carry adequate, up-to-date charts and publications necessary for the intended voyage
- International Maritime Organization (IMO) Convention, which involves co-operation among governments about:
- technical matters affecting shipping engaged in international trade
- standards of:
- maritime safety
- efficient navigation
- prevention and control of marine pollution from ships
- IMO Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) carriage requirement as of 2012
- International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) Convention, which involves:
- promoting uniformity and reliability in charts
- coordinating activities of national hydrographic offices
- United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which requires countries to indicate on chart or publicize coordinates of baselines for:
- territorial sea
- continental shelves
- exclusive economic zones
Canadian constitution, statutes and regulations
There are many Canadian statues and regulations alongside constitutional direction that involve the creation and updating of hydrographic charts.
The Constitution Act (1867) gives the Parliament of Canada exclusive legislative authority for:
- navigation and shipping
- sea coast and inland fisheries
- beacons, buoys, lighthouses and Sable Island
The Department of Fisheries and Oceans Act outline the minister's powers and duties with regard to:
- sea coast and inland fisheries
- fishing and recreational harbours
- hydrography and marine sciences
- coordination of the policies and programs of the Government of Canada regarding oceans
The Oceans Act explains the minister's powers to:
- charge fees for:
- rights and privileges
- other documents
- authorize distribution or sale of:
- conduct hydrographic and oceanographic surveys
- collect data for the purpose of understanding oceans
- coordinate national policies and programs regarding:
- fisheries science
- provide marine scientific advice, services and support to:
- other states
- the provinces
- other persons
- international organizations
- the Government of Canada
- make recoverable expenditures on behalf of and at the request of any other:
- person or body
- board or agency of the Government of Canada or of a province
- conduct or cooperate with persons conducting applied and basic research programs and investigations
- set standards and establish guidelines for use by hydrographers and others in collecting data and preparing charts on behalf of the minister
The Canada Shipping Act (2001) indicates that the Governor in Council may make regulations on the safety of vessels. This can include the supplies required on vessels. For example, see the Charts and Nautical Publications Regulations (1995).
The Charts and Nautical Publications Regulations (1995) regulations require:
- the term 'ship' to include any size of vessel, with exception for ships less than 100 tons (provided navigator has specified knowledge)
- persons in charge of navigation to use the most recent edition of a chart issued officially by or on the authority of CHS
- master and owner of a ship to carry the most recent edition of charts and publications required for the intended voyage, issued officially by or on the authority of CHS
The Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act allows the Governor in Council to make regulations requiring ships to comply with standards when within shipping safety control zones. This includes carriage requirements for:
- tide tables
- any other documents or publications required for navigation in Arctic waters
The Canada Marine Act allows port authority employees to direct a ship to leave a port facility if the ship is operating without the required charts or publications.
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